The population growth rate r affects the sex ratio at marriageable age because it shapes age structure. Inter-community differences in son preference could produce spatial variation in the sex ratio at birth, and this variation will manifest itself in variation in adult sex ratios decades later. As demonstrated above for stable populations, an unbalanced SRM would become closer to 1. Lastly, future studies would benefit from richer migration data. This is cause for concern given that migrant males are more likely to report visiting female sex workers [ 17 , 29 ], and male clients are more likely to be at risk for HIV [ 17 ]. What demographic changes would result in the largest decrease in the sex ratio at marriageable ages? From to the total fertility rate TFR fell from almost 6 children per woman to only 2 ibid. The number of respondents within communities ranges from 5 to with a mean of
These findings are consistent with hypotheses derived from demographic-opportunity theory, which suggests that an abundance of opposite-sex partners will increase the risk of early, frequent, and multi-partner sex and, through this, STI risk. Each of these variables is computed by aggregating responses from all CHFLS respondents to the community level. This means that in China, an unbalanced SRB is not offset by sex differentials in mortality. Despite these limitations, the study adds to existing literature on migration in China, with a better understanding of young migrants, their sexual behaviors and sexual health risks. While it is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss specific strategies and interventions, two groups of migrants are notably at risk for adverse health outcomes: First, according to official Chinese policy for the census, even unregistered inhabitants of a given area will be counted as residents of that area if they have lived there for at least six months. In the subset analyses performed only on migrants, however, urban-to-urban migrants continued to demonstrate an advantage for consistency of contraceptive use, controlling for recency of migration. Our third dependent variable is a dichotomous variable scored 1 for respondents who tested positive for gonorrheal, chlamydial, or trichomoniasis infection. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. This is counter to other findings in the United States that suggest recent migration 6 years or less is associated with lower health risk behaviors among youth compared to migrants who have lived in an area for more than six years [ 32 ]. Population projections We used a cohort-component projection method to examine the combined effects of the SRB, the age gap of marriage partners, and fertility rates on the sex ratio and percentage of single Chinese in marriageable ages focusing on the 25—39 age group from to Imbalanced sex ratios have also been linked to marital dissolution and relationship quality. This study has a number of limitations. Third, these data are taken from rural and urban areas of Shanghai; because Shanghai is the most modern of Chinese cities, these results may not be generalizable to other young migrant populations elsewhere in China. Gender differences in the associations with consistency of use were similar to those for condom use. Mortality tends to be higher for men than women. This study suggests that rural-to-urban migrant young men, and young women in rural areas who never migrate are both at a greater disadvantage compared to other groups. The population growth rate r affects the sex ratio at marriageable age because it shapes age structure. Additionally or alternatively , it could adopt more punitive measures for women seeking sex-selective abortions. The total fertility rate was 1. HIV-related risk behaviors and history of sexually transmitted diseases among male migrants who patronize commercial sex in China. Particular emphasis has been given to the impact of demographic characteristics e. We elaborate on each factor below. In addition, because many migrants are living alone or in work dormitories, collaboration between work-sites and local health departments should be promoted, including work-based sex education and condom distribution programs. In growing populations, younger cohorts are generally larger than older cohorts.
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