Despite its significant impact on infant health, our understanding of the factors interfering with LCR development and function remains limited. However, the confounding factors related to the environment and maternal lifestyle make it difficult to address this issue and the conclusions that can be drawn from clinical studies remain limited. To address this issue, we used an established newborn pup preparation Xia et al. Origin and source of the animals Experiments were performed on Sprague Dawley male and female rat pups. Hooked silver wires diameter of 0.
A polyethylene tubing PE, Clay Adams, Beckton Dickinson was inserted slowly into the rostral part of the trachea until the tip reached the larynx. Electrophysiological recordings indicate that stress augments excitatory currents converging onto the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus DMNV , a brainstem region that inhibits heart rate and in which enhanced synaptic elements have been reported in victims of sudden infant death. Mating procedures and neonatal stress protocol Virgin females were mated and delivered 10—15 pups. Consequently, it was hypothesized that excessive cardio-respiratory inhibition resulting from abnormal or delayed LCR maturation contributes to sudden infant death syndrome SIDS; Kinney et al. The authors declare no competing financial interests. In addition to inadequate responsiveness to respiratory stimuli O2 and CO2 , the inability to coordinate breathing with swallowing contributes to this problem Martin and Wilson, Correspondence should be addressed to Richard Kinkead, Ph. O2 saturation Sp o2 and heart rate were measured with pulse oxymetry Mouse Ox, Starr Life Sciences by placing a sensor onto the thigh of the pup. All personnel involved in this research followed appropriate training and complied with institutional and national ethical guidelines. When excessive, this reflex the laryngeal chemoreflex; LCR can be fatal. Besides being a clinically relevant model of neonatal stress Doom and Gunnar, ; Battaglia et al. Two days after delivery, litters were culled to 12 pups, when necessary, with a roughly equal number of males and females. Now they will only be allowed in one industrial zone. Owing to neural control immaturity, infants are unable to cough or swallow and LCR activation results in prolonged apneas with profound O2 desaturations and bradycardias that can be life threatening. The trachea was cut partially with a transverse incision so that the lumen was visible. However, the SIDS literature identifies male sex and exposure to systemic e. Contributed by Author contributions: The higher testosterone levels reported in infant victims of unexpected, unexplained death are consistent with this hypothesis Emery et al. Materials and Methods Ethical approval and compliance Laval University Animal Care Committee approved all the experimental procedures described in this article CPAC protocol ; the protocols were in accordance with the guidelines detailed by the Canadian Council on Animal Care. In each series of experiments, each group of rats was composed of animals originating from multiple litters to avoid litter-specific effects. The NMS protocol was identical to the one used in previous studies Genest et al. Previously, erotic businesses were allowed in 14 zones across the city. Dysregulation of testosterone secretion is a plausible explanation for these abnormalities. A grounding wire was inserted subcutaneously into the skin over the abdomen. A midline skin incision was then made in the neck and the cervical trachea was freed from adjacent tissues. Introduction Recurrent apneas with O2 desaturations and bradycardias are an important cause of hospitalization and morbidity in infants, especially those born preterm.
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